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Architectures

Mobile Internet

  • Not just conventional web browsing
    • Browsing is cumbersome with mobile devices
  • Apps & services
    • Transactions
    • Connectivity to people
    • Games & entertainment
    • Sources of media content
    • Manage everyday events

Specifications

  • Architecture specifications
    • Permanent baseline of MITA
  • Key system specifications
    • end-to-end system aspects
  • Architecture frameworks
    • Define how to handle some special issues e.g. security & QoS

Architecture specification

  • UI & App framework
    • Guidelines for UIs
    • Limited set of UI styles
    • Mapping App functionality to physical UI in understandable way
    • Minimising customer learning curves to adopt new Apps & services
  • Interaction models
    • Messaging
    • Browsing
    • Rich Call

Messaging

  • Non real-time
  • Client-server based communication
  • Asynchronous
  • Server functionality
    • Store & forward (SMS, EMS, MMS)
    • Store & retrieve (EMAIL)
    • Store & push
    • Publish & subscribe

Browsing

  • Near real-time
  • Request-response
  • One-way audio & video streaming capability
  • XHTML mobile profile
  • Online & offline browsing

Rich call

  • Two-way real-time communication
  • QoS
    • Jitter (variation in time between packets arriving)
    • Latency
  • Voice & video calls
  • Concurent communication

Internet protocols in MITA

  • IP protocol extended to support mobility (mobile IP)
  • OS & platform support in MITA
  • Sets basic requirements for OS & platform
  • Defines required functionality
    • Libraries, APIs, network protocols, …
  • Does not define preferred OS just the required capabilities
  • Eases the portability of Apps
  • Multiple access in MITA
  • Defines the elements needed to allow access from mobile device to IP network
  • Access independent interface shields the mobile Internet layer from underlying technology

Key system specifications

  • Naming Numbering & Addressing (NNA)
  • Presence
  • Reachability
  • Location

Naming Numbering & Addressing

  • Identity/addressing
    • Phone number
    • www-address
    • E-mail address
  • Translation between different types of naming schemes on different communication types

Presence

  • Provides dynamic information about
    • The status & availability of users & mobile devices
  • One user may have multiple App level identities
    • Presence can be different for different Apps

Reachability

  • Defines how the user/device can be reached through web/mobile domain
  • Tries to solve the problem caused by different types of networks
  • Access independent connectivity
  • Mobility management
  • Reliability to end-to-end communications
  • Service discovery
  • Three types of methods
    • SD on ad-hoc networks
    • SD on Internet
    • SD for presence & virtual community

Location

  • Defines software & protocol interfaces for location services
  • Device management & data synchronisation
  • Distributed applications & databases
  • Link between presence & contact/calendar
  • Personal Information Management (PIM)
  • Content download
  • Content formats
  • Content adaptation
  • To support different types of devices
  • Privacy

Architecture frameworks

  • Defines how to handle some issues that are complicated to solve without a common & unified model
    • Structured under common framework before a more detailed architecture is built
  • Current frameworks include:
    1. Directories
    2. Security in MITA
    3. QoS

Directories

  • Network repositories about people, places & things
    1. Schema
    2. Access methods
    3. Directory store

Security

  1. Integirty
  2. Confidentiality
  3. Availability
  4. Authentication
  5. Authorisation

Mobile Internet interfaces

  • Open interfaces to software & protocols for software developers & integrators
  • Quality of service
    • Real-time, Near real-time, Async, ..
    • Jitter, latency, tolerable Delays, …

MITA ppt

Ubicomp & App areas

  • Ubiquitous computing - Mark Weiser (1952-1999), Xerox Parc 1988
    • Each person is continually interacting with hundreds of nearby interconnected computers without explicitly attending to them
    • Computers are integrated in everyday objects like motors.
      • people use the items not computers as much as you use a drill not the motor
    • The most profound technologies are those that dissapear. The weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life untill they are indistinguishable from it” - Weiser, The computer of the 21st century, scientific american, september 1991.
  • Pervasive computing - Academia, IBM 1999
    • Pervasive computing encompasses the dramtically expanding sphere of computers embedded within and instrinsically part of larger devices - IBM

Ubicomp & App areas ...

  • Ambient inteligence - European commision
    • People living easily in digital environments in which the electronics are sensitve to peoples needs, personalised to their requirements, anticipatory of their behaviour and responsive to their presence” - philips
    • Ambient inteligence repsents a vision of the future where we shall be surronded by electronic environmnets, sensitive and responsive to people. Ambient intelligence technologies are expected to combine concepts of ubiquitous computing & intelligent systems putting humans in the center of technological development” - 2nd European symposium on ambient intelligence
  • Calm computing - Weiser & John Seely Brown 1996
    • Computing activity takes place in the background & provides outcome in an unobtrusive way
    • Dangling strings, Laughing lily, …

Ubicomp & App areas ...

  • Active environments, augmented environments, augmented reality
  • Virtual reality takes place in digital world, augmented environments brings digital enhancements in normal environments
  • Augmenting humans
    • Adding capabilities to humans
    • Computing power is everywhere, because computer is embedded in the user
  • Awareness
    • Communication with environment
    • Knowledge of current situation
    • Knowledge of users

Challenges

  • User interfaces
    • Multi-modality
      • Modality–> way to convey information between a user & App interface using single distinct human capability to process the information
        • Text, graphics, speech, audio, …
      • UI adapted to the device capability
        • Speaker, graphical display, …?
        • Microphone, keyboards, …?
  • Connections
    • Machine to machine communications?
  • Automation
    • System control Vs. user control
    • Privacy Vs usability

Comlab & ubicomp Apps

  • Guidance systems
  • Mobile phone & bicycle communications
  • Automated locks & computer login
  • ME- Mobile Electronic Personality

References

  • Mobile Internet Technical Architecture book series, Nokia & IT Press
    • Technologies & standardisation
    • Solutions & tools
    • Visions & implementations
  • Ubiquitous computing
    • Magazines
      • Personal & ubiquitous computing magazine - springer verlag
      • IEEE pervaise computing magazine - IEEE
    • Books
      • Security for ubiquitous computing - Frank Stajano
      • Pervasive computing - Technology & architectures of mobile internet applications - Jochen Burkhardt et al.
      • World without secrets: Business, crime & privacy in the age of ubiquitous computing - Richard Hunter

References ...

Next

  • Security
Last modified: 2013/07/01 14:41